Indicator List of Category: ENVIRONMENT
Indicator Unit Definition
Air Pollution, Mean Annual Exposure Micrograms per Cubic Metre Population-weighted exposure to ambient PM2.5 pollution is defined as the average level of exposure of a nation's population to concentrations of suspended particles measuring less than 2.5 microns in aerodynamic diameter, which are capable of penetrating deep into the respiratory tract and causing severe health damage.
Amphibian Species, Threatened Number The Amphibians are divided between three higher-level ranks or Orders: Gymnophiona, Anura and Caudata, with Anura and Caudata being more closely related to each other than either is to the Gymnophiona. Based on the results of the Global Amphibian Assessment (as of December 2006), the Anura is comprised of the frogs (and their subgroup, the toads), and is by far the largest Order, with 5.208 living species currently recognized. The Caudata (salamanders and newts) contains 535 described living species and is the second largest of the three amphibian Orders, although representing only about 10% of the number of species as frogs. The Gymnophiona (caecilians) is the smallest of the three amphibian Orders (with only 172 described species), even though the group is at least as old as all of the diversity of salamanders and frogs taken together. Because they tend to be rare animals in collections, the taxonomic status of many caecilian species is uncertain. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
Bird Species,Threatened Number Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton. Birds are listed for countries included within their breeding or wintering ranges. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Per Capita Metric Tons Carbon dioxide emmissions per capita are measured as the total amount of carbon dioxide emitted by the country as a consequence of all relevant human (production and consumption) activities, divided by the population of the country.
Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Total Thousand Metric Tonnes Estimates of total carbon dioxide emissions include anthropogenic emissions, less removal by sinks, of carbon dioxide. The term “total” implies that emissions from all national activities are considered. The typical sectors for which carbon dioxide emissions/removals are estimated are energy, industrial processes, agriculture, waste, and the sector of land use, land-use change and forestry.
Fish Species, Threatened Number The term "fish" most precisely describes any non-tetrapod craniate (i.e. an animal with a skull and in most cases a backbone) that has gills throughout life and whose limbs, if any, are in the shape of fins. Unlike groupings such as birds or mammals, fish are not a single clade but a paraphyletic collection of taxa, including hagfishes, lampreys, sharks and rays, ray-finned fish, coelacanths, and lungfish. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known. There are still many species that have not yet been assessed for the IUCN Red List and therefore their status is not known (i.e., these groups have not yet been completely assessed). Therefore, the figures presented for these groups should be interpreted as the number of species known to be threatened within those species that have been assessed to date, and not as the overall total number of threatened species for each group.
Fungus and Protist Species, Threatened Number A fungus is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, fungi, which is separate from the other eukaryotic life kingdoms of plants and animals. A protist is any eukaryotic organism (one with cells containing a nucleus) that is not an animal, plant or fungus. The protists do not form a natural group, or clade, since they exclude certain eukaryotes; but, like algae or invertebrates, they are often grouped together for convenience. In some systems of biological classification, the protists make up a kingdom called Protista, composed of "organisms which are unicellular or unicellular-colonial and which form no tissues". Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known. There are still many species that have not yet been assessed for the IUCN Red List and therefore their status is not known (i.e., these groups have not yet been completely assessed). Therefore, the figures presented for these groups should be interpreted as the number of species known to be threatened within those species that have been assessed to date, and not as the overall total number of threatened species for each group.
Mammal Species, Threatened Number Mammal species are mammals (Vertebrates constituting the class Mammalia, and characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in females produce milk for feeding (nursing) their young, a neocortex (a region of the brain), fur or hair, and three middle ear bones. These characteristics distinguish them from reptiles and birds.) excluding whales and porpoises. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.
Mollusc Species, Threatened Number Molluscs are a clade of organisms that all have soft bodies which typically have a "head" and a "foot" region. Often their bodies are covered by a hard exoskeleton, as in the shells of snails and clams or the plates of chitons. It includes such familiar organisms as snails, octopuses, squid, clams, scallops, oysters, and chitons. Mollusca also includes some lesser known groups like the monoplacophorans. There are still many species that have not yet been assessed for the IUCN Red List and therefore their status is not known (i.e., these groups have not yet been completely assessed). Therefore, the figures presented for these groups should be interpreted as the number of species known to be threatened within those species that have been assessed to date, and not as the overall total number of threatened species for each group.
Other Invertabrate Species, Threatened Number Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord. This includes all animals apart from the subphylum Vertebrata. Familiar examples of invertebrates include insects; crabs, lobsters and their kin; snails, clams, octopuses and their kin; starfish, sea-urchins and their kin; jellyfish, and worms. There are still many species that have not yet been assessed for the IUCN Red List and therefore their status is not known (i.e., these groups have not yet been completely assessed). Therefore, the figures presented for these groups should be interpreted as the number of species known to be threatened within those species that have been assessed to date, and not as the overall total number of threatened species for each group.
Plant Species, Threatened Number Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. All current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria). Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known. There are still many species that have not yet been assessed for the IUCN Red List and therefore their status is not known (i.e., these groups have not yet been completely assessed). Therefore, the figures presented for these groups should be interpreted as the number of species known to be threatened within those species that have been assessed to date, and not as the overall total number of threatened species for each group.
Pollution, Population Exposed to Levels Exceeding WHO Interim Target-1 Value (% of total) Percentage Percent of population exposed to ambient concentrations of PM2.5 that exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) Interim Target 1 (IT-1) is defined as the portion of a country’s population living in places where mean annual concentrations of PM2.5 are greater than 35 micrograms per cubic meter. The Air Quality Guideline (AQG) of 10 micrograms per cubic meter is recommended by the WHO as the lower end of the range of concentrations over which adverse health effects due to PM2.5 exposure have been observed.
Pollution, Population Exposed to Levels Exceeding WHO Interim Target-2 Value (% of total) Percentage Percent of population exposed to ambient concentrations of PM2.5 that exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) Interim Target 2 (IT-2) is defined as the portion of a country’s population living in places where mean annual concentrations of PM2.5 are greater than 25 micrograms per cubic meter. The Air Quality Guideline (AQG) of 10 micrograms per cubic meter is recommended by the WHO as the lower end of the range of concentrations over which adverse health effects due to PM2.5 exposure have been observed.
Pollution, Population Exposed to Levels Exceeding WHO Interim Target-3 Value (% of total) Percentage Percent of population exposed to ambient concentrations of PM2.5 that exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) Interim Target 3 (IT-3) is defined as the portion of a country’s population living in places where mean annual concentrations of PM2.5 are greater than 15 micrograms per cubic meter. The Air Quality Guideline (AQG) of 10 micrograms per cubic meter is recommended by the WHO as the lower end of the range of concentrations over which adverse health effects due to PM2.5 exposure have been observed.
Reptile Species, Threatened Number Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known. There are still many species that have not yet been assessed for theIUCN Red List and therefore their status is not known (i.e., these groups have not yet been completely assessed). Therefore, the figures presented for these groups should be interpreted as the number of species known to be threatened within those species that have been assessed to date, and not as the overall total number of threatened species for each group.
Terrestrial and Marine Protected Areas (% of total territorial area) Percentage Terrestrial protected areas are totally or partially protected areas of at least 1,000 hectares that are designated by national authorities as scientific reserves with limited public access, national parks, natural monuments, nature reserves or wildlife sanctuaries, protected landscapes, and areas managed mainly for sustainable use.
Terrestrial Protected Areas (% of total land area) Percentage Terrestrial protected areas are totally or partially protected areas of at least 1,000 hectares that are designated by national authorities as scientific reserves with limited public access, national parks, natural monuments, nature reserves or wildlife sanctuaries, protected landscapes, and areas managed mainly for sustainable use.
Total Species, Threatened Number Sum of all threatened species including Amphibians, Birds, Fishes, Fungi and protists, Mammals, Molluscs, Other Invertebrates, Plants, and Reptiles. Threatened species are the number of species classified by the IUCN as endangered, vulnerable, rare, indeterminate, out of danger, or insufficiently known.